Crohn’s disease can cause symptoms that go beyond digestive problems, including skin conditions, osteoporosis, and even arthritis.
Gas, bloating, diarrhea, nausea: You’re probably all-too-familiar with these common Crohn’s disease symptoms, especially if they strike regularly. Yet because Crohn’s disease is a systemic or whole-body condition, its symptoms could extend beyond your digestive system.
“Crohn’s disease is a body-wide disease that is caused by excessive inflammation,” says Nirmal Kaur, MD, director of the inflammatory bowel disease center at Henry Ford Health System in Detroit. “Some people with Crohn’s disease only have inflammation in the bowel, but about 30 percent to 40 percent of people have what is called extra-intestinal manifestations, or Crohn’s disease symptoms outside of their gastrointestinal tract.”
In most cases, the treatments for non-digestive symptoms of Crohn’s are the same as the treatment for bowel-related symptoms: primarily medication. These medications may include aminosalicylates (for mild cases), immunosuppressive agents, biologic therapies, and corticosteroids. For most people, they work well for all Crohn’s symptoms. “Most people notice that when their digestive Crohn’s disease symptoms are treated, their non-digestive symptoms get better as well,” Dr. Kaur says.
Understanding Non-Digestive Symptoms of Crohn’s Disease
Here are eight symptoms of Crohn’s disease that show up outside of the digestive tract, why they occur, and how they can best be managed.
Increased arthritis risk. Because of the inflammation associated with the disease, up to 25 percent of people with Crohn’s also develop arthritis, according to the Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation of America. “This arthritis risk is highest in the larger joints, such as the knees, elbows, and wrists, which is called peripheral arthritis,” Kaur says. “But arthritis can show up anywhere in people with Crohn’s disease.” Usually, if the Crohn’s is treated, arthritis improves as well.
Increased osteoporosis risk. “People with Crohn’s disease are at higher risk for osteoporosis than the general population is,” says Mariam Fayek, MD, attending physician in the Center for Women’s Gastrointestinal Health at Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island in Providence. “The chronic inflammation of Crohn’s disease leads to increased bone loss, and people with Crohn’s are also more likely to be vitamin-D deficient, both of which contribute to osteoporosis risk.”
This vitamin D deficiency occurs partly because the portion of the bowel that absorbs vitamin D is diseased. Another contributor to an increased osteoporosis risk is steroid use, specifically the drug prednisone, which thins the bones. “Before the 1990s, there weren’t many therapies for Crohn’s disease outside of prednisone, so many people with Crohn’s disease who are older in age received a lot of this drug and now have osteoporosis,” Kaur says. Prednisone is still used as a temporary therapy for moderate to severe Crohn’s when other treatments don’t work, increasing osteoporosis risk in some younger people with the condition as well.
To reduce the risk for osteoporosis:
- Avoid prolonged use of prednisone
- Perform regular weight-bearing exercises
- Avoid smoking
- Minimize alcohol and caffeine
- Eat a healthy, balanced diet
“You should also get your vitamin D levels checked and have regular bone density tests,” Dr. Fayek says.
Skin conditions. Crohn’s disease can cause certain skin conditions, including erythema nodosum, which is characterized by tender red nodules on the legs and shins, and pyoderma gangrenosum, which are large painful ulcers. “These skin conditions are caused by the inflammatory process of Crohn’s disease, and the treatment for them is to treat Crohn’s disease, sometimes along with topical therapy by a dermatologist,” Kaur says. Another possible skin condition is psoriasis. Although psoriasis appears to be a skin disease because of its red patches covered with silvery scales, it’s an inflammatory disease. It’s also linked to arthritis and Crohn’s disease by way of psoriatic arthritis, an inflammatory joint disease that can cause bone and joint damage.
“Some of the medications used to treat Crohn’s disease increase the risk of non-melanomatous skin cancers and melanomas,” Fayek says. For instance, azathioprine and mercaptopurine may increase the risk for basal and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin, she adds, and biologic agents such as the anti-TNF class of drugs may increase the risk for melanomas. Always apply sunscreen, minimize excessive sun exposure, and get yearly skin checks by a dermatologist when on these medications, Fayek says.
“People with Crohn’s disease can become anemic and experience fatigue because of blood loss and inflammation,” Fayek says. “Fatigue can also be associated with depression, which is common in people with chronic conditions such as Crohn’s disease.”
Vitamin D deficiency can also contribute to fatigue, as can the body-wide inflammation that may go along with Crohn’s disease. “Taking vitamin D and iron supplements and effectively treating Crohn’s disease can all help to ease fatigue,” Kaur says.
Canker sores. While mouth sores aren’t a common symptom of Crohn’s disease, Crohn’s inflammation can involve any part of the GI tract, from the mouth to the rectum. “Severe oral involvement may present with aphthous ulcers [canker sores] or pain in the mouth and gums,” Fayek says. These painful mouth sores usually occur during Crohn’s flares and appear on the gums or the underside of the tongue. In addition to regular Crohn’s treatment, oral pain-relief rinses or gels, an oral antibiotic rinse, or corticosteroids may help.
Fever and infection. “Fever can be a symptom of Crohn’s disease because of the low-grade inflammation associated with the disease,” Fayek explains. “A fever is particularly concerning if someone is taking drugs for Crohn’s that suppress the immune system.”
Some people with severe Crohn’s disease can develop abdominal abscesses from the inflammation extending through the wall of the intestine to the abdominal cavity, Fayek explains. “Patients on immunosuppressive medications are particularly at risk for certain fungal infections and reactivation of tuberculosis,” she says. If you have a fever over 100.5 degrees Fahrenheit, she says, you should contact your gastroenterologist right away. If the source of the fever is an infection, you’ll likely be treated with antibiotics.
It’s important for people with Crohn’s who are on immunosuppressive therapy to be up to date on their vaccines, Fayek says. However, live, weakened virus vaccines should not be given to people on immunosuppressive therapy; they can and should receive the following inactivated vaccines:
- A yearly flu vaccine.
- Certain pneumonia vaccines. (Talk to your doctor about which ones should be offered to people starting immunosuppressive therapy.)
- DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis), which should be given as a booster, particularly if it’s been more than 10 years since your last vaccine.
Other inactivated vaccines include: the hepatitis A vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib), meningococcus, and HPV vaccine, Fayek say.
Your doctor can help you determine what kind of vaccination schedule you should follow.
Migraines. Some people with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis can get migraine headaches, which are thought to be rooted in inflammation. Once people take medications for other symptoms of Crohn’s disease, their migraine headaches usually also improve, Kaur says.
Eye infections. “There are two types of eye conditions that can occur in people with Crohn’s disease, and both are emergencies,” Kaur says. The first is episcleritis, which is irritation and inflammation of the episclera, a thin layer of tissue that covers the white part of the eye. “Episcleritis is extremely painful, and it makes the eye very red,” she says. The second is uveitis, which is inflammation of the uvea, the middle layer of the eye. “Uveitis causes distinct pain,” Kaur says. Sudden redness, blurred vision, and light sensitivity are other possible symptoms, according to the American Academy of Ophthalmology. “Both eye conditions are rare, but if you have Crohn’s disease and experience any eye pain or redness, call your doctor or head to the emergency room right away.”
Like the digestive symptoms of Crohn’s disease, these non-digestive symptoms are more likely to crop up during a flare or if your Crohn’s is severe. If you have Crohn’s disease and experience any of these symptoms, talk to your doctor promptly to get the care you need.
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Botanical Syrup the solution to a stubborn cough
Irish Botanica Botanical Syrup has helped many to find relief for the first time from a stubborn cough
Irish Botanica Botanical Syrup is a cough remedy that I told you about last year. Many of you who tried it found it amazing and got relief for the first time from a stubborn cough. But, unfortunately, the suppliers ran out of stock and left many of you disappointed that you couldn’t try it for yourself. Nobody could have predicted the demand. The good news is that it’s back in stock and your local health store should be able to order it in for you.
Botanical Syrup was developed by Medicinal Herbalist David Foley. Botanical Syrup contains herbs which can help ease all stubborn and difficult to shift coughs, clear congestion, decrease mucus, and relieve the symptoms of asthma, hay fever, and bronchitis. What’s great about the blend is that as well as the herbs to treat coughs it also contains Vitamin C, Liquorice and Ginseng which are included for their immune supporting properties and also their ability to relieve the effects of stress on the body.
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Last year I had amazing feedback from people all around the country. Many of you also told your friends and family about how effective it was. I would say that approx. 8 out of 10 people who tried it got relief from a stubborn cough. So I’m happy to remind you of it so you can see if it can help you too. Remember to check with your doctor if you’re on medication.
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